Who Developed The First Comprehensive Theory Of Personality?
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Who Developed The First Comprehensive Theory Of Personality?
Answer: Sigmund Freud is the one to develop the first comprehensive theory of personality.
Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis presented the first comprehensive theory of personality. He was also the one to understand how mental life takes place outside our conscious awareness. He proposed three components to our personality: the id, the ego and the superego.
The job of the ego is to balance the sexual and aggressive drive of the id of the moral ideal of the superego. He did not forget to mention that personality develops through psychosexual stages. In all the stages, pleasure particularly focuses on the erogenous zone.
If one fails to resolve the stage then he or she can get fixated in that stage, which then leads to unhealthy personality traits. If you are successful in all the stages then it will lead you to a healthy adult stage in your life.
In this article, we will be covering the topic: Who Developed The First Comprehensive Theory Of Personality?
If you are interested in psychoanalysis, then you must read the article to the end.
Who Developed The First Comprehensive Theory Of Personality? -Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud was and is a known figure. He was a late 19th and early 20th-century neurologist. He is widely known as the father of modern psychology. In his school life, he excelled in Greek, Latin, history, maths and science.
His powerful academic background gave him entry at the University of Vienna at the age of 17. He did not just stop there, later he pursued his medical history and Phd in Neurology.
Freud got married to Martha Bernays, in the year 1886. They had six children all in total. The youngest child is known as Anna Frued who became an influential psychologist and an ardent defender of her father’s theories.
Who Developed The First Comprehensive Theory Of Personality?-His Contribution To Psychology
Freud believed and emphasised philosophers such as Nieztsche, Dostoevsky and Kant. Freud’s theories continue to influence modern psychology. His ideas resonate all over philosophy, sociology and political science with thinkers like Jaques Lacan and Karl Marx who drew upon Freudian theories.
Freud’s early life and drive to pleasure are perhaps his most significant contributions of him to psychology. Even some psychologists who never believed in Freud’s theory, also take interest in a client’s early life and the relationship they have with their child.
What Is Personality?
Personality is not something new that people have recently started studying. It has been studied for over 2,000 years and it has started with the Hippocrates.
Recent theories of personality propose Frued’s psychodynamic perspective, which holds one personality which is formed through early childhood experiences.
Other perspectives later emerge in reaction to the psychodynamic perspective. It includes learning, humanistic, biological, trait and cultural perspectives.
Here we will be elaborating all the approaches.
According to behavioural theorists, personality is shaped and impacted by the reinforcements and consequences outside the organism. People tend to behave in a manner that is based on some prior learning.
A prominent behaviourist mentioned that people demonstrate consistent behaviour patterns because we have built response tendencies. Many other behaviourists stated their theories in this matter.
Some talked about how personal goals play a role in the self-regulation process. Some said that the environment is the base on which one determines their behaviour but people can also the environment through their thoughts and behaviours. And this is called reciprocal determinism.
Another reputed behaviourist emphasised learning from others. He believed that this kind of learning actually makes an impact on the development of the person’s personality.
He also discussed self-efficacy, which is our level of confidence in our own abilities.
At last, a behaviourist called Rotter, came into proposing the concept of locus of control, emning one’s belief in fate. It talks about the power we have over our lives.
Humanistic psychologists have spent their time focusing on the growth potential of healthy individuals. They believed and also imposed a theory that people like to become self-actualized.
Both of their theories have contributed a lot to our understanding of self. They emphasised free will and self-determination, with the best way of becoming the best version of themselves.
Behaviourists say that some aspects of our personality are largely ruled by genetics. Therefore environmental factors and the maturation period affects the ways in which a child expresses their nature or personality.
Trait theorists tend to explain our personality by identifying our current stable characteristics and the ways we behave. They have been successful in identifying different and important dimensions of our personality.
The most accepted theory today is the five-factor model. The five factors are openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, neuroticism and agreeableness. All these occur along a continuum.
We cannot keep culture aside when we are talking about building personality. The culture in which we live is one of the essential environmental factors that actually give a shape to our personality.
Western culture and its ideas are not applicable to other cultures, as there are various cultures on earth. In fact, the strength of personality traits varies across cultures.
There are two cultures that people believe in individualist cultures and collectivist cultures. People who merge themselves with an individualist culture think of independence, competition and personal achievement. On the contrary, collectivist culture is based on social harmony, respectfulness and group needs.
Here are three approaches that can be used to study personality in a cultural context: combined approach, indigenous approach and cultural-competitive approach.
There you go with Who Developed The First Comprehensive Theory Of Personality?. We have given the answer at the beginning of the article.
We have also talked about Sigmund Freud and his contribution. Other than that we talked about different approaches to personality.
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